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Missions to Mars - Viking

The Viking mission to Mars sent two identical probes. The probes consisted of an orbiter and a lander.

The Viking Orbiter:

and lander:

Viking 1 was launched on August 20, 1975 and arrives at Mars on June 19, 1976. The Lander was released from the orbiter and landed on July 20, 1976. The mission of the orbiter ended on August 7, 1980 and the lander's mission ended on February 1, 1983.

The Viking 1 lander operated out of Chryse Planitia.

Viking 2 was launched on September 9, 1975 and arrives at Mars on August 7, 1976. The Lander was released from the orbiter and landed on September 3, 1976. The mission of the orbiter ended on July 24, 1978 and the lander's mission ended on April 12, 1980.

The Viking 2 lander operated out of Utopia Planitia (And this is also the name of the shipyard of the USS Enterprise - NCC 1701-D).

Of the several experiments on the Viking lander, one of them was to determine if life was present. The result was negative. What Viking did determine was why the color of Mars is red:

the composition of the soil is 44% silica and 19% ferric oxide - or rust. The first hard evidence of water on Mars in the past was revealed.

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