Viking mission to Mars sent two identical
probes. The probes consisted of an orbiter and a
The Viking Orbiter:
Viking 1 was launched on August 20, 1975 and arrives
at Mars on June 19, 1976. The Lander was released
from the orbiter and landed on July 20, 1976. The
mission of the orbiter ended on August 7, 1980 and
the lander's mission ended on February 1, 1983.
The Viking 1 lander operated out of Chryse Planitia.
Viking 2 was launched on September 9, 1975 and
arrives at Mars on August 7, 1976. The Lander was
released from the orbiter and landed on September 3,
1976. The mission of the orbiter ended on July 24,
1978 and the lander's mission ended on April 12,
The Viking 2 lander operated out of Utopia
Planitia (And this is also the name of the shipyard
of the USS Enterprise - NCC 1701-D).
Of the several experiments on the Viking
lander, one of them was to determine if
present. The result was negative. What Viking did
determine was why the color of Mars is red:
the composition of the soil is 44% silica and 19%
ferric oxide - or rust. The first hard evidence of
water on Mars in the past was revealed.