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Appendices and Other Various Tables

Everyone likes tables. Sometimes it's easier to see a number comparison between objects - like comparisons of mass between the planets or a list of nearest stars and their corresponding motions.

The following tables were re-created from a wide variety of sources - websites, textbooks, almanacs and so forth. I hope you find them useful.

Our Solar System:

Physical Properties of the Planets
Orbital Properties of the Planets
Gravitational Properties of the Planets
The Moons of Jupiter
The Moons of Saturn
The Moons of Uranus
The Moon of Neptune

Stellar Properties:

The Nearest Stars
The Brightest Stars

Universal Properties:

The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Redshifts and Distances
History of the Universe

Convertion Tools, Interactive Tables (thanks to JAT Observatory):

Temperature Conversion
Length Equivelent
Convert Numbers
Morse Code (for fun!)
Binary to Decimal
Area Equivelents
ASCII Values
Periodic Table

 

Physical Properties of the Planets
Planet: Equitorial Radius (km)[Earths]: Mass (Earths): Average Density (g/cm3): Escape Velocity (km/s): Magnetic Field (Earths): Rotation: Tilt:
Mercury 2439 [0.382] 0.055 5.44 4.2 0.011 58.65 d 0
Venus 6052 [0.95] 0.815 5.24 10.4 < 0.001 244.3 d 177o
Earth 6378 [1.00] 1.00 5.52 11.2 1.00 23h 56m 04.1s 23.5o
Mars 3398 [0.53] 0.108 3.94 5.0 0.001 24h 37m 23s 24o
Jupiter 71,494 [11.2] 317.8 1.34 60 13.9 9h 50m 30s 3.1o
Saturn 60,330 [9.46] 95.15 0.69 35 0.67 10h 13m 59s 26.4o
Uranus 25,559 [4.01] 14.54 1.27 21 0.74 17h 14m 97.9o
Neptune 24,750 [3.88] 17.15 1.66 24 0.43 16h 3m 28.8o
Pluto 1151 [0.18] 0.0021 2.0 1.2 unknown 6d 9h 21m 122o

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Orbital Properties of the Planets
Planet: Semimajor Axis (km): Semimajor Axis (AU): Eccentricity: Inclination: Sidereal Period: Synodic Period:
Mercury 5.79 x 107 0.387 0.206 7o 87.97 d 115.9 d
Venus 1.08 x 108 0.723 0.007 3.4o 224.68 d 583.9 d
Earth 1.496 x 108 1.00 0.017 0o 365.26 d -
Mars 2.28 x 108 1.524 0.093 1.9o 686.95 d 779.9 d
Jupiter 7.78 x 108 5.20 0.048 1.3o 11.867 y 398.9 d
Saturn 1.43 x 109 9.54 0.056 2.5o 29.461 y 378.1 d
Uranus 2.87 x 109 19.2 0.046 0.7o 84.01 y 369.7 d
Neptune 4.50 x 109 30.1 0.010 1.7o 164.8 y 367.5 d
Pluto 5.90 x 109 39.4 0.248 17.2o 247.7 y 366.7 d

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Gravitational Properties of the Planets
Object: Mass (kg): Radius (km): Surface Gravity (m/s2): Surface Gravity (Earth is 1): Escape Velocity (km/s):
Mercury 3.287 x 1023 2.439 x 106 3.69 0.38 4.2
Venus 4.870 x 1024 6.052 x 106 8.87 0.91 10.4
Earth 5.976 x 1024 6.378 x 106 9.80 1.00 11.2
Mars 6.454 x 1023 3.398 x 106 3.73 0.38 5.0
Jupiter 1.899 x 1027 7.149 x 107 24.8 2.53 60
Saturn 5.686 x 1026 6.033 x 107 10.4 1.06 35
Uranus 8.689 x 1025 2.556 x 107 8.88 0.91 21
Neptune 1.025 x 1026 2.475 x 107 11.2 1.14 24
Pluto 1.255 x 1022 1.151 x 106 0.632 0.07 1.2
Moon 7.350 x 1022 1.738 x 106 1.62 0.17 2.4
Sun 1.989 x 1030 6.960 x 108 274.0 28.0 618

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The Moons of Jupiter
Moon: Radius (km): Mass (kg): Distance from Jupiter (km): Period (days):
Metis 20 9.56 x 1016 127,970 0.29
Adrastea 12.5 1.91 x 1016 128,970 0.30
Amalthea 135 7.17 x 1018 181,300 0.50
Thebe 55 7.77 x 1017 221,900 0.67
Io 1,815 8.94 x 1022 421,600 1.77
Europa 1,569 4.80 x 1022 670,900 3.55
Ganymede 2,631 1.48 x 1023 1,070,000 7.15
Callisto 2,400 1.08 x 1023 1,883,000 16.7
Leda 8 5.68 x 1015 11,094,000 239
Himalia 93 9.56 x 1018 11,480,000 251
Lysithea 18 7.77 x 1016 11,720,000 259
Elara 38 7.77 x 1017 11,737,000 260
Ananke 15 3.82 x 1016 21,200,000 -631 (retrograde)
Carme 20 9.56 x 1016 22,600,000 -692 (retrograde)
Pasiphae 25 1.91 x 1017 23,500,000 -735 (retrograde)
Sinope 18 7.77 x 1016 23,700,000 -758 (retrograde)

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The Moons of Saturn
Moon: Radius (km): Mass (kg): Distance from Saturn (km): Period (days):
Pan 9.7 - 133,280 0.57
Atlas 20 - 137,640 0.60
Prometheus 73 2.7 x 1017 139,350 0.61
Pandora 57 2.2 x 1017 141,700 0.63
Epimetheus 72 5.6 x 1017 151,420 0.69
Janus 98 2.0 x 1018 151,470 0.69
Mimas 196 3.8 x 1019 185,520 0.94
Enceladus 250 8.4 x 1019 238,020 1.37
Calypso 17 - 294,660 1.89
Telesto 17 - 294,660 1.89
Tethys 530 7.55 x 1020 294,660 1.89
Dione 560 1.05 x 1021 377,400 2.74
Helene 18 - 377,400 2.74
Rhea 765 2.49 x 1021 527,040 4.52
Titan 2575 1.35 x 1023 1,221,850 16.0
Hyperion 205 1.77 x 1019 1,481,000 21.3
Iapetus 730 1.88 x 1021 3,561,300 79.3
Phoebe 110 4.0 x 1018 1,2952,000 -550 (retrograde)

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The Moons of Uranus
Moon: Radius (km): Mass (kg): Distance from Uranus (km): Period (days):
Cordelia 16 - 49,750 0.34
Ophelia 16 - 53,760 0.38
Bianca 22 - 59,160 0.43
Cressida 33 - 61,770 0.46
Desdemona 29 - 62,660 0.47
Juliet 42 - 64,360 0.49
Portia 55 - 66,100 0.51
Rosalind 27 - 69,930 0.56
Belinda 34 - 75,260 0.62
Puck 77 - 86,010 0.76
Miranda 235.8 6.33 x 1019 129,780 1.41
Ariel 578.9 1.27 x 1021 191,240 2.52
Umbriel 584.7 1.27 x 1021 265,970 4.14
Titania 788.9 3.49 x 1021 435,840 8.71
Oberon 761.4 3.03 x 1021 582,600 13.5

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The Moon of Neptune
Moon: Radius (km): Mass (kg): Distance from Neptune (km): Period (days):
Naiad 29 - 48,000 0.29
Thalassa 40 - 50,000 0.31
Despina 74 - 52,500 0.33
Galatea 79 - 62,000 0.43
Larissa 104 - 73,600 0.55
Proteus 200 - 117,600 1.12
Triton 1350 2.14 x 1022 354,800 -5.88 (retrograde)
Nereid 170 2.50 x 1017 5,513,400 360

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The Nearest Stars
Name: Distance (ly): Spectral Type: R.A.: Dec.: Luminosity (Solar):
Proxima Centauri 4.2 M5.5V 14 30 -62 40 5.3 x 10-6
Alpha Centauri A 4.4 G2V 14 40 -60 50 1.5
Alpha Centauri B 4.4 K0V 14 40 -60 50 0.45
Barnard's Star 6.0 M4V 17 58 +04 42 4.5 x 10-4
Wolf 359 7.8 M6V 10 56 +07 01 2.1 x 10-5
Lalande 21185 8.3 M2V 11 03 +35 58 5.8 x 10-3
Sirius A 8.6 A1V 06 45 -16 43 23
Sirius B 8.6 WD 06 45 -16 43 2.5 x 10-3
Luyten 726-8 A 8.7 M5.5V 01 39 -17 57 6.0 x 10-5
Luyten 726-8 B (UV Ceti) 8.7 M6V 01 39 -17 57 4.0 x 10-5
Ross 154 9.7 M3.5V 18 50 -23 50 5.2 x 10-4
Ross 248 10.3 M5.5V 23 42 +44 11 1.1 x 10-4
Epsilon Eridani 10.5 K2V 03 33 -09 28 0.29
Ross 128 10.9 M4V 11 48 +00 48 3.4 x 10-4
Luyten 789-6 A 11.3 M5V 22 39 -15 18 4.8 x 10-5
Luyten 789-6 B 11.3 - 22 39 -15 18 5.1 x 10-5
Luyten 789-6 C 11.3 - 22 39 -15 18 2.5 x 10-5
Procyon A 11.4 F5IV 07 39 +05 14 7.5
Procyon B 11.4 WD 07 39 +05 14 5.6 x 10-4
61 Cygni A 11.4 K5V 21 07 +38 45 8.8 x 10-3
61 Cygni B 11.4 K7V 21 07 +38 45 4.1 x 10-3
Gliese 725 A 11.5 M3V 18 43 +59 38 3.0 x 10-3
Gliese 725 B 11.5 M4V 18 43 +59 38 1.4 x 10-3
Gliese 15 11.6 M1V 00 18 +44 01 6.5 x 10-3
Gliese 15 B 11.6 M3V 00 18 +44 01 4.2 x 10-4
Epsilon Indi 11.8 K5V 22 03 -56 47 0.15
GJ 1111 11.8 M6.5V 08 30 +26 47 1.4 x 10-5 22 03
Tau Ceti 11.9 G8V 01 44 -15 56 0.47

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The 20 Brightest Stars
Common Name: Apparent Magnitude: Luminosity (Solar): Distance (ly): Spectra Type: Proper Motion (arcsec/year): Radial Velocity (km/s): R.A.: Dec.:
Sirius -1.47 23 8.6 A1V 1.34 -7.6 06 45 -16 43
Canopus -0.72 14000 313 F0II 0.03 20.5 06 24 -52 42
Alpha Centauri -0.01 1.6 4.4 G2V 3.71 -22.3 14 40 -60 50
Arcturus -0.06 116 36.7 K1.5III 2.28 -5.2 14 16 +19 11
Vega 0.04 51 25.6 A0V 0.35 -13.9 18 37 +38 47
Capella 0.05 136 42.2 G5III 0.43 30.2 05 17 +46 00
Rigel 0.14 41000 773 B8Iab 0.00 20.7 05 14 -08 15
Procyon 0.37 7.4 11.4 F5IV-V 1.26 -3.2 07 39 +05 13
Betelgeuse 0.41 9900 427 M2Iab 0.03 21.0 05 55 +07 24
Achernar 0.51 1120 144 B3V 0.10 16 01 38 -57 14
Beta Centauri 0.63 12000 525 B1III 0.04 5.9 14 04 -60 22
Altair 0.77 11.5 16.8 A7IV-V 0.66 -26.1 19 51 +08 52
Aldebaran 0.86 156 65.2 K5III 0.20 54.3 04 36 +16 31
Alpha Crucis 0.90 4130 321 B0.5IV 0.04 -11.2 12 27 -63 06
Spica 0.91 2290 262 B1V 0.05 1.0 13 25 -11 10
Antares 0.92 11300 604 M1.5Ib 0.03 -3.4 16 29 -26 26
Fomalhaut 1.15 17.5 25.1 A3V 0.37 6.5 22 58 -29 37
Pollux 1.16 31.9 33.7 K0III 0.63 3.3 07 45 +28 02
Deneb 1.26 58000 1500 A2Ia 0.00 -4.5 20 41 +45 17
Beta Crucis 1.28 3200 352 B0.5IV 0.05 15.6 12 48 -59 41
Regulus 1.35 141 77.5 B7V 0.25 5.9 10 08 +11 58

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Electromagnetic Spectrum
Region: Wavelength (Angstroms): Wavelength (Centimeters): Frequency (Hz): Energy (eV):
Radio > 109 > 10 < 3 x 109 < 10-5
Microwave 109 - 108 10 - 0.01 3 x 109 - 3 x 1012 10-5 - 0.01
Infrared 108 - 7000 0.01 - 7 x 10-5 3 x 1012 - 4.3 x 1014 0.01 - 2
Visible 7000 - 4000 7 x 10-5 - 4 x 10-5 4.3 x 1014 - 7.5 x 1014 2 - 3
Ultraviolet 4000 - 10 4 x 10-5 - 10-7 7.5 x 1014 - 3 x 1017 3 - 103
X-Ray 10 - 0.1 10-7 - 10-9 3 x 1017 - 3 x 1019 103 - 105
Gamma Ray < 0.1 < 10-9 > 3 x 1019 > 105

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Redshifts and Distances
Redshift: v/c Distance (Mpc): Distance (ly): Look-Back Time (years): Corresponding Age of Universe:
0.00 0.00 0 0 0 100%
0.05 0.049 222 7.26 x 108 7.08 x 108 93%
0.10 0.095 430 1.40 x 109 1.336 x 109 87%
0.50 0.385 1,694 5.52 x 109 4.57 x 109 54%
1.0 0.600 2,704 8.82 x 109 6.48 x 109 35%
2.0 0.800 3,901 1.27 x 1010 8.10 x 109 19%
3.0 0.882 4,616 1.51 x 1010 8.78 x 109 12%
4.0 0.923 5,103 1.66 x 1010 9.13 x 109 9%
5.0 0.946 5,462 1.78 x 1010 9.35 x 109 7%
6.0 0.960 5,742 1.87 x 1010 9.51 x 109 6%
10 0.984 6,448 2.10 x 1010 9.75 x 109 3%
100 1.00 8,312 2.71 x 1010 1.00 x 1010 ~0%
1000 1.00 8,939 2.92 x 1010 1.00 x 1010 ~0%
Infinite 1.00 9,231 3.01 x 1010 1.00 x 1010 0%

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History of the Universe - Since the Big Bang
Time: Temperature (GeV)*: Temperature (K): Notes:
10-43 s 1.2 x 1019 1.4 x 1032 Planck scale; quantum gravity; superstrings; space-time foam?
10-35 s 1.0 x 1014 1.2 x 1027 Begin brief inflationary epoch; end of grand unified era
10-35 s 1.0 x 1014 1.2 x 1027 End of inflationary epoch; beginning of standard big bang evolution; origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry
10-11 s 1.0 x 102 1.2 x 1015 End of electromagnetic and weak force unification
10-6 s 1.0 1.2 x 1013 Confinement: quarks and gluons become bound in the hadrons
1 s 1.0 x 10-3 1.2 x 1010 Weak interactions drop out of thermal equilibrium (weak freeze-out)
~ 3 min 1.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 109 End nucleosynthesis of light elements
103 y 1.0 x 10-8 1.2 x 105 End of radiation dominance; begin matter dominance
105 y 3.0 x 10-10 3.6 x 103 Electrons and protons combine to form atoms; photons and matter decouple
105 y 8.0 x 10-13 ~ 10 The first galaxies have formed by now
~ 1010 y 2.3 x 10-13 ~ 3 The present Universe

*Conversion: 1 GeV = 109 electron-Volts (eV) = 1.2 x 1013 kelvins (K)

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Temperature Conversions:

Fahrenheit Celsius
Is Equal to:
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Length Equivelents:

Length Equivalents

Convert miles to kilometers, meters to feet or inches to centimeters
with just a couple mouse clicks!

 

Enter length to be converted:

From: Centimeters Inches Feet Yards Meters Chains Kilometers Miles
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Convert Numbers:

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Morse Code:

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Binary to Decimal:
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Binary box values from left to right are: 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1 an unchecked box equals zero

Binary:
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Area Equivelents:

Area Equivalents

Convert from one measurement type to another.

Enter the number to be converted in the upper box, 
then select the conversion you want to perform.
Click the "Click for Conversion" button to see the results.

 

Input value to be converted:

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ASCII Values:
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A Basic Periodic Table of the Elements:
H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac Unq Unp Unh Uns Uno Une
Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Name Number Weight
Melts Freezes

Legend
Metals A solid substance that is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Can be formed into many shapes.
Metalloid "Middle elements" - conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals, but not as well as metals. Easier to shape than nonmetals, but not as easy as metals. Solid at room temperature.
Nonmetals A poor conductor of heat and electricity. Not easily formed into shapes.

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